Operator’s guide to activated sludge bulking

Operator’s guide to activated sludge bulking

Operator’s guide to activated sludge bulking 

Michael Lever 


A range of factors have been suggested to explain the causes of filamentous bulking. Unfortunately they are often opposites. Different theories have been developed based on dissolved oxygen, substrate diffusion within the floc, bacterial growth kinetics and food storage properties. These concepts have been combined with new analysis of anoxic bulking to produce a consistent unified theory. Full scale plant examples are used for illustration.